Nutrient Deficiencies

Bone pain and deformities. Greater likelihood of fractures (due to bone thinning or osteoporosis), muscle spasms and tooth discolouration and greater susceptibility to painful tooth decay.
Folate (folic acid)
Fatigue and weakness (due to anaemia)
Fatigue and weakness (due to anaemia)
Muscles spasms
Diarrhoea, skin disorders, confusion (pellagra), and sore tongue.
Tissue swelling (edema) usually in legs: dry skin; and hair loss
Vitamin A
Night blindness
Vitamin B1
Pins and needles sensation, especially in the feet and heart failure
Vitamin B2
Sore tongue and cracks at edge of mouth
Vitamin B12
Fatigue and weakness (due to anaemia), pins and needles sensation and confusion
Vitamin C
Weakness and bleeding gums
Vitamin D
Bone thinning and bone pain
Vitamin K
Tendency to bruise and bleed

GI Tract Medical Term Definitions

Inflammation of the mucosa creating a small ulcer occurring in groups in the mouth or on the tongue or a condition in which such ulcers can occur 
A gangrenous inflammation of the mouth usually within the cheek such as cancer 
Difference between cancrum and canker 
A canker is small shallow ulcer or sore whereas a cancrum is more of a necrotic inflammation 
Condylomata of the palate 
A wart produced by a papilloma virus which is usually transmitted by sexual contact. It occurs at a point of minor trauma during oral sex 
Papillae tongue erect 
Paipillae tongue erect is a nipple shaped protrusion of the dermis into the epidermis 
A cyst on the underside of the tongue 
Scorbutic gums 
An abnormal condition charecterised by inflamed or bleeding gums and caused by a vitamin C deficiency 
Inflammation of the mouth usually within the cheek 
Destructive process causing decalcification of the tooth enamel and leading to continued destruction of enamel, dentin and cavitation of the tooth 
Closing the teeth and squeezing them tightly together. OR a tendency to 
Medical term Bruxism 
The pathological wearing away of tooth substance by mechanical means such as grinding them together on top of each other 
Inflammation of the periosteum which is the tough fibrous membrane covering the bone 
Brown crusts forming on the lips and teeth where normal oral hygiene is impaired for example during a fever or dehydration 
Caseous deposit on teeth 
A deposit on teeth resembling cheese or curd. A necrotic tissue convertion which can be associated with tuberculosis 
Hawk Disposition 
A frequent tendency to clear the throat 
The free slime of the mucous membranes. It is composed of secretion of the glands, various salts, desquamated cells and leukocytes 
A dilated or varicose state of a vein or veins 
A burning sensation in the chest that can extend to the neck, throat and face 
Induration of the walls 
Hardening of tissue. In this case the hardening of the stomach walls 
Is characterised by hypersalivation resulting in the regurgitation of sour or almost tasteless fluid into the mouth 
Difference between eructations of water and waterbrash 
Eructations of water is defined as the belching of water from the stomach through the mouth whereas waterbrash is the regurgitating of fluid back into the mouth causing a heartburn sensation 
Fluid within the peritoneum cavity which is the serous membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity 
Sounds coming from the stomach and bowel area caused by wind of fluid 
Gas causing distention of the gastrointestinal tract resulting in discomfort and passing of wind 
One bowel section telescoping into another. Medical term – invagination 
A medical condition in which excess gas accumulates in the gastrointestinal tract. Medical term Tympanites 
An acute entiritis caused by the bacterium Vibrio Cholerae associated with faecal contamination in water causing by diarrhoea with severe cramping and vomiting.  
Acute inflammation of the bowel with the passing of mucus or blood 
Abrasions of the rectum 
An ulcerated split or cleft  
An abnormal passage connecting two organs 
Pain, tenesmus 
Painful and ineffectual straining 
Contraction or narrowing of a channel 
A loose stool that contains watery fluid and contains white flocculialson known as rice stool usually associated with cholera or serous diarrhoea 
Stool with a silvery colour due to a mixture of blood and white fatty stools.  

Common, Less Common and Rare Symptoms of Mononucleosis – Glandular Fever

Common and less common symptoms of Mononucleosis
Extreme fatigue
Sore Throat
Swollen Lymph Nodes
Less Common
Enlarged spleen
Liver slightly enlarged
Swelling around the eyes
Skin rashes
Nerve damage
Behavioural abnormalities
Airways blockage due to swollen lymph nodes

Primary and Secondary Dysmenorrhoea in Adolescence and Puberty

Definition of Dysmenorrhoea 
Dysmenorrhoea is defined as painful menstruation usually located in the lowest part of the abdomen (pelvic area) 
Primary Dysmenorrhoea 
Secondary Dysmenorrhoea 
Pain in general location of lower abdmomen 
Pain in lowest part of the abdomen and may extend to the lower back or legs.  
Pain only occurs during menstrual cycle in which the egg is released thought to be as a result of prostaglandins released during menstruation 
Crampy, sharp intermittent 
Can be severe symptoms shich can result in the interference of being able to carry out daily activities resulting in absence from work or school 
Dull of constant ache 
Reduced blood supply to the uterus and increased sensitivity of nerve endings in the uterus resulting in lower pain thresholds. 
Usually starts 1 – 3 days before or during the menstrual period. Peaks after 24 hours and subsides after 2 to 3 days 
Headache, nausea, constipation, diarrhoea, urge to urinate. 
Occasional vomiting, premenstrual irritability, nervousness, depression and abdominal bloating 

Primary and Secondary Amenorrhoea in Adolescence and Puberty

A complex hormonal system regulates menstruation and the female menstrual cycle; however, if any malfunction within this system occurs such as within the hypothalamus, pituitary, ovaries, adrenal glands and thyroid gland then Amenorrhoea can occur.  
Primary Amenorrhoea Causes 
  • Defects within the uterus or fallopian tubes from birth. 

  • Disorders of developments (chromosomal) such as Turner’s syndrome where a cell only contains one X chromosome instead of two) 

  • Other genetic disorders affecting the female sexual development.  

Secondary Amenorrhoea 
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome. 

  • Hydatidiform mole. 

  • Asherman’s syndrome. 

  • Medication such as chemotherapy, anti psychotics, antidepressants, contraceptives and hallucinogenic drugs such as cocaine and opioids. This usually affects women who have already started having periods. 

  • Stress 

  • Excessive exercise 

  • Eating disorders 

Three Useful Remedies for Children who can be Challenging

Tarentula Hispanica 
Cognition problems 
Desire to experience everything 
Excited and restless 
Irritable and restless 
Wild sensation in the head 
Aversion to being touched 
Desire for solitude 
Talks incoherently and becomes impatient and angry when not understood 
Begins a sentence then forgets what they wanted to say 
Tendency to bite 
Cruelty to animals 
Erratic behaviours 
Lack of control over instinctive behaviours 
Aggressiveness to the point of cruelty and violence 
Hyperactive children 
Excessive masturbation 
Excessive passion. Could be over sexual children 

Some useful Skin Disorder Terms

Cicatrices – is the pleural of cicatrix which is a scar caused by the formation of new connective tissue over a wound or skin sore.

Desquamation – The scales caused by the shredding or peeling of the epidermis layer of the skin

Chloasma – A skin discolouration usually appearing as brown or dark brown skin that can occur on the face in particular of a woman during pregnancy or other hormonal changes.
Lenticular – Shaped like a lense. This can also apply to the eye or cell nucleus.
Ecchymoses – The medical term for a bruise or bruised area.
Serpiginous – Applied to a cutaneous lesion or ulcer usually with a marked wavy boarder.
Herpetic Relating to the Herpes Virus
Furfuraceous – Consisting of scaly particles such as dandruff
Petechiae – Small purple or red spots resulting for tiny haemorrhages under the skin such as flea bites
Circinate– Circular or ring shaped
Macule – A non raised discoloured spot on the skin
Papule – A small solid (usually inflamed) elevation of the skin that does not contain pus
Nodule – A small solid node that can be detected by touch
BullaAn elevated lesion of the skin usually containing fluid such as a blister
Vesicle – A small elevation of the epidermis containing a serous fluid.

Useful Breast Feeding Remedies

For swelling of the mammary glands with lancinating pain 
For Mastitis 
Calcarea Carbonica 
For stitching pains when breast feeding 
Lac Defloratum 
For a reducing flow of milk 
Lac Caninum 
For absent flow of milk 
For sore breasts that are very tender 
For the sensation of fullness within the mammary glands 
For hard, stony swollen mammary glands 
Source. Repertory of the Homoeopathic Materia Medica  Kent